Authors: Stephen W. Perkins, M.D., and Shervin Naderi, M.D.
German and French surgeons are credited with pioneering facelift surgery. In 1906, Lexer is thought to have performed surgery to treat wrinkles, but it was Hollander in 1912 who was the first to report a case. Other European physicians, including Joseph (1921) and Passot (1919), developed their own techniques for treatment of the aging face. However, these founding fathers were often guarded when it came to sharing their wisdom, and teaching was rare.